World Chronology of Historical Events

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Historical Timeline of the ARRCC.

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The items marked in blue in the following chronology of world history are of particular significance or historical relevance to the Anglican Patriarchate and Coadjutorship of Rome.

 

75,000 BC - Neanderthal man cares for sick and aged, communicates by speech.

40,000 BC - Cro-Magnon man.

38,000 BC - Homo Sapiens controls fire.

30,000 BC - Prehistoric art appears.

20,000 BC - Early humans cross the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas.

12,000 BC - Domestication of the dog.

11,000 BC - Flint-edged wooden sickles appear.

10,000 BC - Jericho is built (the oldest known city).

9,000 BC - Plant cultivation and domestication of sheep begins.

7,000 BC - First fired-clay pottery appears.

5508 BC - The Year of Creation as adopted in Constantinople in the 7th century AD - and used in the Eastern Orthodox Church and in Russian secular life until early 18th century AD.

5490 BC - Year of Creation according to early Syrian Christians.

5199 BC - Year of Creation of the world according to Roman martyrology.

5000 BC - Egyptians begin crop irrigation. The earliest ziggurat is built at Eridu.

4004 BC - 23 October: Date of Creation according to Irish Anglican archbishop James Ussher in 1650 AD -

4000 BC - Foundation of Ur. (World population estimated 85 million.)

4000 BC - Domestication of cattle.

3760 BC - Year of Creation according to the Hebrew calendar as used from the 15th century AD.

3641 BC - 10 February: Date of Creation according to Mayan calendar.

3500 BC - Sumerians began to use bronze tools, animal-drawn carts, the potter's wheel, rowing oars, and plows. Egyptians invent bread.

3200 BC - Sumerians invent writing.

3100 BC - King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt. Beginning of Early Dynastic Period in Egyptian history.

3000 BC - Beeswax candles used in Egypt and Crete. Chariots used and development of the lyre in Mesopotamia.

2980 BC - The pyramid of Zoser erected by Imhotep at Sakkara (Step Pyramid); world's first large stone structure.

2800 BC - Invention of the sickle by the Sumerians.

2750 BC Foundation of Tyre, according to Herodotus.

2686 BC - Beginning of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.

2530 BC - Construction of the "Great Pyramid," with square base measuring 755 feet on each side and covering an area of 13 acres. Composed of 2,300,000 large blocks that weighed an average of 2.5 tons each, each placed with accuracy such that the four sides of the base have a mean error of only 0.6 inches in length and 12 seconds in angle from a perfect square. The population of Egypt is about 2 million people.

2400 BC - Egyptians begin using papyrus for writing. Texts that will be discovered at Tell Mardikh (Ebla) in 1974 AD - were written about this time.

2350 BC - Sargon of Akkad, who took a name that means "True King" to attempt to mask his background, overthrows the king of Kish and founds a Semitic dynasty in ancient Mesopotamia. He ruled for 56 years.

2300 BC - The Hittites enter Anatolia.

2060 BC - The earliest known code of law is promulgated by Ur-Nammu of Ur.

2000 BC - Epic of Gilgamesh composed.

1900 BC - Stonehenge is built within the next three centuries.

1900 BC - Hittites begin iron smelting.

1728-1686 BC - reign of Hammurabi of Babylon. Law Code. (The ancient Babylonian Empire differs from that of the Old Testament, which is the Neo-Babylonian Empire.)

1550 BC - Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt.

1503 BC - Queen Hatshepsut becomes the only woman to rule Egypt as Pharaoh.

1483 BC - Thutmose III begins a 33-year reign during which Egypt will reach the height of her power, extending dominion from below the fourth cataract of the Nile in the south to the Euphrates in the east. Pharaoh," meaning "Great House," came into use in the reign of Thutmose III.

1375 BC - Letters to Pharaoh from minor princes in Palestine, later discovered at Amarna in Egypt in 1887 AD, were written around this time.

1370 BC - The Sea Peoples destroy Ugarit. Writings buried that will be discovered in 1929 AD.

1358 BC - Ikhnaton of Egypt dies after 17-year reign; is succeeded by his son-in-law, Tutankhamen (King Tut), who will rule until 1350 BC.

1304 to 1237 BC - The 67-year reign of Ramses II, during which he built the temple at Abu Simbel. He is often considered the Pharaoh of the Biblical Exodus.

1300 BC - The technique for smelting and carbonizing iron was developed in the Caucasian foothills around this time.

1280 BC - Exodus (according to Albright).

1220 BC Merneptah Stele mentions a people named Israel living in Palestine.

1198 BC - Ramses III, second king of Egypt's 20th Dynasty, begins a 31-year reign. He rallied the Egyptians against a confederation of Philistine, Sardinians, Greek Danaoi, and other sea peoples.

1193 BC - King Priam's city of Troy at the gateway to the Hellespont in Asia Minor falls to Greek forces under Agamemnon after a 10-year siege in the Trojan War.

1100 BC - Phoenecians found the city of Cadiz in Spain.

1020 BC - Saul becomes the first King of Israel.

1000 BC - David becomes King.

962 BC - Death of David. Solomon becomes King.

922 BC - Solomon dies. The Kingdom is split into Israel in the North and Judah in the South.

922-915 BC - Reign of Rehoboam of Judah.

922-901 BC - Reign of Jeroboam I of Israel

876-869 BC - Reign of Omri of Israel.

873-849 BC - Reign of Jehoshaphat of Judah.

870 BC - Omri marries his son Ahab to Jezebel, daughter of Ithbaal of Tyre.

869-850 BC - Reign of Ahab of Israel

853 BC - Battle of Qarqar (Ahab joined the Arameans against Shalmaneser III; they were defeated).

852 BC - The Mesha Stele.

850 BC (Date disputed) - The IliAD - and the Odyssey inscribed by the blind Greek poet Homer, according to the historian Herodotus approximately four centuries later.

850 BC - King Ahab of Israel dies in battle against the Arameans at Ramoth-Gilead.

842-815 BC - Reign of Jehu of Israel; slaughtered the descendants of Ahab (son of Omri).

842 BC - Ahaziah of Judah visits Israel at the time of Jehu's revolt and was killed. Queen Athaliah of Judah, daughter of king Ahab of Israel, seized the throne and murdered all royal heirs except for Jehoash, who was hidden in the Temple by the priest Jehoiada until a coup could be arranged.

814 BC - Carthage founded in North Africa by refugee Phoenician colonists.

801 BC - Egypt and Greece will begin regular trade relations over the next 100 years.

800 BC - Indian mathematicians began to use a symbol for zero sometime before this date.

800 BC - City of Corinth founded.

786-746 BC - Reign of Jeroboam II of Israel. The prosperity of this period, due to the regaining of control over the King's Highway [see II Kings 14.25] is background for the books of Amos and Hosea.

783-742 BC - Reign of Uzziah of Judah.

776 BC - First recorded Olympic games in Greece.

753 BC - Rome is founded.

745 BC - Tiglathpileser III begins a 7-year reign in Assyria; he will conquer Syria, Palestine, Israel, and Babylon.

735-715 BC - Reign of Ahaz of Judah. His reign provides background for the Book of Isaiah.

722 BC - Samaria, capital of Israel from 879 BC, falls to Assyrian forces after a 3-year siege. Shalmaneser V of Assyria dies; is succeeded by his son Sargon II, who takes 27,290 Israelite prisoners.

715-687 BC - Reign of Hezekiah of Judah.

704 BC - Sennacherib names Nineveh the capital of Assyria.

700 BC - Scythians invent the saddle.

691 BC - Assyrians build early aquaduct; transport water 34 miles to Nineveh.

671 BC - Assyrians capture Memphis and rule part of Egypt

669-627 BC - Reign of Ashurbanipal. The City of Nineveh, largest city in the world at the time, is further beautified and enlarged. Ashurbanipal established the largest library the world in Nineveh, containing over 22,000 clay tablets.

661 BC - Thebes sacked by the Assyrians.

640-609 BC - Reign of Josiah of Judah, who came to the throne at the age of 8 upon his fathers assassination.

628 BC - Birth of Zarathustra.

625 BC - Metal coins introduced in Greece.

623 BC - Discovery of the "Book of the Law" in the Temple during repairs ordered by king Josiah. Beginning of the Deuteronomistic reform.

620 BC - The strict nature of Draco's law code and its harsh punishments provide the origin of the modern word "draconian."

612 BC - The fall of Ninevehsacked by the Medes. Assyria, whose enormous power only a quarter century before hAD - been thought to be unconquerable, was entirely destroyed by 800 AD, vanishing from the historical record.

609 BC - The death of King Josiah of Judah at Megiddo during an attempt to prevent the passage of Pharaoh Neco, who was en route to help the Assyrians regain Haran from the Babylonians.

605 BC - Battle of Carchemish. Nebuchadnezzar defeated the Egyptians.

597 BC - First deportation from Jerusalem.

587 BC - Jerusalem falls to Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon after a 16-month siege. Jews are exiled in the period known as the "Babylonian Captivity," which continued until 538 BC.

585 BC Nebuchadnezzar unsuccessfully laid siege to the city of Tyre, the only Phoenician territory that hAD - not yet yielded. The siege lasted until 573.

560 BC - Jehoiachin, King of Judah was released by the Babylonians after 36 years of imprisonment.

559 BC - Croesus, King of Lydia, invents metal coinage to replace commodities as a medium of exchange.

550 BC - Cambyses I, King of Anshan dies after a long reign; is succeeded by his son Cyrus the Great, who reigned until 529 BC. Cyrus created a Persian empire by uniting the Medes, Persians, and other tribes.

539 BC - Cyrus the Great of Persia defeats the Babylonian King Nabonidus, entering the city of Babylon on 20 October amidst a jubilant populace. He either has Nabonidus killed or banishes him to Carmania. The Edict of Cyrus permits Jews to return to Jerusalem, ending of the Babylonian Exile/Captivity.

529 BC - Cyrus the Great of Persia is killed fighting a savage tribe east of the Caspian Sea. He reigned for 21 years and died t age 71.

522 BC - Cambyses died; is succeeded by his brother-in-law, Darius I, who reigned the Persian Empire at the peak of its power. It was the largest Empire by far to date and comprised all civilized Asia, spanning from the Aegean Sea to the borders of India, and also included Egypt. An elaborate roAD - system was built by Darius.

518 BC - Darius I begins building Persepolis.

512 BC - Darius I conquers the city of Byzantium (later known as Constantinople or modern-day Istanbul).

490 BC - Greeks defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon.

480 BC - Death of Siddhartha Gautam, known as the Buddha.

480 BC - Greeks defeat Persian navy at Salamis. Persians defeat Greeks at Thermopolis. Athens burned.

465 BC - Xerxes assassinated. Succeeded by his son Artaxerxes I.

460 BC - Pericles becomes political leader of Athens.

457 BC - Under Pericles, a 28-year Golden Age of Athens begins.

449 BC - History written by Herodotus.

447 BC - Building of the Parthenon begins.

445 BC - Nehemiah named Governor of Judah by Artaxerxes I.

441 BC - Euripides wins the Athenian prize for drama.

438 BC - The Parthenon is completed.

432 BC - The Peloponnesian Wars.

399 BC - Socrates condemned to drink hemlock.

387 BC - Plato founds the Academy in Athens.

370 BC - Plato writes The Republic.

341 BC - The Persians conquer Egypt.

333 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III at the battle of Issus. This results in Greek access to Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, beginning the Hellenistic/Greek period in Palestine.

331 BC - Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt.

325 BC - The Persae by Timotheus of Miletus; survived as the earliest Greek-language papyrus.

323 BC - Alexander the Great dies at Babylon, age 32. The Wars of the Diadochi (Successors) result, lasting 42 years, in which Alexander's Generals, Antigonus, Antipater, Seleucus, Ptolemy, Eumenes, and Lysimachus contest control of the Macedonian Empire.

285 BC - The lighthouse on the island of Pharos in Alexandria's harbor, standing 300 feet tall, will remain an important navigational aid for 1600 years.

280 BC - The Colossus of Rhodes, constructed over a 12-year period, is tall enough at its height of 120 feet above the harbor to allow ships to pass between its legs. It will be destroyed by earthquake in 224 BC.

239 BC - First recorded appearance of Halley's comet.

230 BC - Manetho writes a history of Egypt, grouping its rulers into family dynasties.

218 BC - Carthaginian General Hannibal crosses the Alps with his army and invades Italy.

214 BC - Construction begins on the Great Wall of China.

200 BC - The Seleucid king Antiochus III defeats troops of Ptolemy V at Paneas (near the sources of the Jordan). Palestine passes from the Ptolemaic to the Seleucid rulers.

200 BC - First use of iron horseshoes. First use of parchment.

168 BC - Persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes IV begins. Sacrifice and circumcision are outlawed under penalty of death. Erection of an altar to Zeus known as the "Abomination of Desolation" in the Temple in Jerusalem.

167 BC - Maccabee family issues a summons to revolt. The Book of Daniel 7-12 was written during this time, which declares the ultimate victory of the people of God over oppressive kingdoms.

165 BC - Judas Maccabeus and his brothers retake Jerusalem from the Syrians.

164 BC - Judas Maccabeus cleansed the Temple. Commemorated annually by the Jewish people in the feast of Hanukkah.

160-143 BC - Jonathan Maccabeus.

153 BC - 1 January 1 established as first day of the civil year in Rome.

143-134 BC - Simon Maccabeus.

141 BC - Jewish forces under Simon Maccabee liberate Jerusalem while the Seleucid emperor Demetrius II Nicator is preoccupied with conquest of Babylonia. Independence of Judea will last until 63 BC.

134-104 BC - John Hyrcanus.

101 BC - Romans become the first to apply water power to milling flour.

73 BC - Third Servile War, led by Spartacus.

64 BC - Jerusalem falls to Pompey after siege.

64 BC - The conspiracy of Cataline.

63 BC - Cicero's orations against Cataline.

62 BC - Florence is founded on the Arno River.

54 BC - Crassus plunders the Jerusalem Temple.

48 BC - Julius Caesar wages war in Egypt on behalf of Cleopatra, de-throned Queen of Egypt.

47 BC - Julius Caesar announces his defeat of an ally of Pompey with the brief but famous dispatch, Veni, Vidi, Vici.

44 BC - Julius Caesar assassinated. Cleopatra, who hAD - been Caesars mistress, returns to Egypt with her son Caesarion and murders her brother (and former husband) Ptolemy XIII Philopater.

41 BC - Egypt's Cleopatra meets Marc Antony at Tarsus; they become lovers.

38 BC - The Lacon.

37 BC - Judea's Herod the Great begins a 33-year reign.

30 BC - Cleopatra and Marc Antony commit suicide.

27 BC - Octavian becomes the first Roman Emperor. The Senate names him Augustus.

20 BC - Herod the Great begins rebuilding of Jerusalem's Temple. Project completed in 63 AD, seven years before its destruction.

6-4 BC - Birth of Jesus. (Jesus is considered to have been born during this time due to an apparent miscalculation in 533 AD.)

4 BC - Death of Herod the Great at age 69. Augustus divides Herod's kingdom among his sons.

14 AD - Roman Emperor Augustus dies at Nola, 19 August, at age 76 after a 41-year reign. Succeeded by his adopted son Tiberius.

26-36 AD - Pontius Pilate is Governor of Judea.

26 AD According to John 2.20, the ministry of Jesus was already underway by this date. (The 46th year of the construction of Herod's Temple, which was begun in 20 BC.)

28 AD - Appearance of John the Baptist (according to Luke).

30 AD (ca.) - Crucifixion of Our Lord Jesus Christ.

34 AD (ca.) - Martyrdom of Saint Stephen the Deacon in Jerusalem.

37 AD - Death of Tiberius. Succeeded by Caligula.

40 AD - Philo traveled to Rome as part of a delegation of Jews protesting the treatment of Jews in Alexandria.

41 AD - 24 January: Assassination of Caligula. Succeeded by Claudius.

43 AD - London founded by the Romans.

44 AD - The Spostle James is executed by order of Herod Agrippa.

49 AD - The Emperor Claudius expels the Jews from Rome.

51 AD - 1 Thessaloniansearliest NT writing.

54 AD - Claudius is murdered. Succeeded by Nero.

54-57 AD - Galatians.

56-57 AD - Philipians.

57 AD I and II Corinthians.

58-60 AD - M. Antonius Felix procurator of Judea. At some point during these two years, Paul was in prison in Caesarea Maritima.

58 AD Romans.

64 AD - Persecution of Christians at Rome breaks out after a fire that began on the night of July 18. Deaths of Peter and Paul.

65-70 AD - Gospel of Mark (first of the gospels to be written).

67 AD - Roman armies under Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus and his son Titus enter Galilee to put down a revolt by Jews who have massacred a body of Roman soldiers in protest against their sacrileges and extortions. All Jews of Caesarea have been slaughtered by the town's citizenry. Those this infuriates the Jews, the Roman army overwhelms them. Jewish General Joseph ben Matthias holds out in a siege of the fortress Jotapata, but yields after 47 days to Vespasian, gaining the favor of the Roman General.

70 AD - Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans.

70-80 AD - Gospels of Matthew and Luke.

71 AD - The arch of Titus erected at Rome by the Emperor Vespasian celebrates the triumph of the Emperor's son the previous year at Jerusalem.

79 AD - Eruption of Mount Vesuvius buries Pompeii.

90's AD - Gospel of John.

100 AD - Sometime after this year, II Peter is written.

132-135 AD - Second Jewish Revolt.

192 AD - Earliest surviving mention of "New Testament" as the name of the new portion of the Bible following the Jewish texts.

533 AD - The Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus proposes using the Incarnation as the basis for calculating years. He calculated the birth of Jesus to be 754 years after the founding of Rome, but was off by 4 to 6 years.

595 AD - Pope Saint Gregory the Great chooses Saint Augustine of Canterbury to lead a mission to Christianize English pagans.

597 AD - Saint Augustine of Canterbury, first Archbishop of Canterbury, arrives in England to begin his mission. He is consecrated Bishop and establishes the Catholic Church of England.

696 AD - Saint Willibrord is consecrated Bishop at Rome by Pope Sergius I and made Apostle to the Netherlands. The See of Utrecht is established.

732 AD - 10 October: Charles the Hammer Martel defeats the Muslims in France, driving them back to Spain. He was the grandfather of Charlemagne.

743 AD - Würzburg established as a diocese.

780 AD - The Electorate and Prince Archbishopric of Mainz was established. It had been a diocese since early Roman times.

781 AD - The Carolingian Kingdom of Italy established, which would become the Kingdom of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire.

800 AD - 25 December: Charlemagne crowned as Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III, beginning what would eventually be known as the Holy Roman Empire, the temporal agent of the Holy Church on earth.

812 AD - Margraviate of Tuscany established in Italy within the Holy Roman Empire. Boniface I becomes the first Margrave.

898 AD - Electorate and Prince Archbishopric of Trier established. It had been a diocese since around 130 AD.

1046-1115 AD - Life of Matilda, Margravine of Tuscany (also known as "the Great Countess"), who led her armies against the Imperial armies in defense of the Pope and the Papal States in 1097 and, with the assistance of French forces, restored Pope Urban II to Rome. She was of the Houses of Lorraine, Bar, and Boniface. Upon her death, she left her territorial possessions to the Roman Church. They are held in custody today by the Anglican Patriarchate as her temporal successor.

1061 AD - Vision of Our Lady of Walsingham to Richeldis de Faverches.

1095 AD - Pope Urban II calls for Crusade.

1098 AD - County of Edessa, the first Crusader State, established in the Levant.

1098 AD - The Principality of Antioch, a Crusader State, is established.

1099 AD - First Crusade begins. The Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of France, the Duchy of Apulia, Calablia, and Sicilia, and the Kingdom of England achieve a decisive victory and take the City of Jerusalem. The Kingdom of Jerusalem is established.

1104 AD - The County of Tripoli, a Crusader State, is established.

1145 AD - The See of Utrecht is granted autonomy by Blessed Pope Eugene III.

1147 - 1149 AD - Second Crusade.

1168 AD - Prince-Bishopric of Wrzburg in the Holy Roman Empire established. Prince-Bishops granted the title of Duke of Franconia.

1189 - 1192 AD - Third Crusade, which failed to re-take Jerusalem from the Muslims.

1192 AD - The Kingdom of Cyprus, a Crusader State, is established.

1202 - 1204 AD - Fourth Crusade, resulting in the establishment of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.

1213 - 1222 AD - Fifth Crusade.

1215 AD - The privileges of Utrecht are confirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council.

1228 - 1229 AD - Sixth Crusade, resulting in Jerusalem, Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa, and Bethlehem reclaimed by the Crusaders.

1248 - 1252 AD - Seventh Crusade, led by Saint Louis IX, King of France.

1270 AD - Eighth Crusade, launch by King Saint Louis IX against Tunis. Saint Louis dies on crusade by fever.

1271 - 1272 AD - Ninth Crusade, resulting in a 10-year truce between the Muslims and the Crusaders.

1407-1457 AD - Life of Lorenzo Valla, who proved that the Constitutum Constantini (the "Donation of Constantine"), which purported to cede temporal power over the Western half of the Roman empire to the Pope, was an 8th century forgery. The Papacy nevertheless legitimately maintained temporal power in the Papal States and claimed overlordship over all temporal states.

1434 AD - Cosimo di Giovanni de Medici becomes the first Medici Lord of Florence.

1503 AD - Giovanni Cardinal de' Medici (the future Pope Leo X) becomes head of the House of Medici and of the Florentine Republic upon the death of his brother, Piero de' Medici. He remained Lord of Florence until the beginning of his papacy in 1513, at which time rule of Florence passed to his younger brother. Today the Patriarch of St. Stephen is the successor to Pope Leo X as Cardinal Prince of Florence.

1513 AD - Giovanni Cardinal de' Medici is elected as Pope Leo X, becoming the first Florentine Archfather.

1516 AD - Pope Leo X confirmed the privilege of the Church of Florence to elect its own clergy.

1520 AD - Pope Leo X confirmed the autonomy of Utrecht, which becomes known as Leonine Privilege.

1522 AD - Hadrian VI, from the See of Utrecht, is elected Pope.

1523 AD - Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici is elected Pope Clement VII, Second Florentine Archfather.

1532 AD - Duchy of Florence established.

1569 AD - Grand Duchy of Tuscany established, comprising some of the land of the former Margraviate of Tuscany.

1543 AD - The treatise of Copernicus arguing for a heliocentrism published.

1545 AD - Paul III begins the Council of Trent.

1546 AD - Georgius Agricula publishes On the Nature of Fossils.

1546 AD - Girolamo Fracastoro describes transmission of disease by living germs.

1559 AD - Giovanni Angelo Medici is elected Pope Paul IV, Third Florentine Archfather.

1559 AD - First index of forbidden books published by Paul IV.

1564 - 1642 AD - Life of Galileo. Although Galileo had obtained permission from Pope Urban VIII to write a book on Copernicanism, he was condemned by the Inquisition.

1579 AD - Sir Francis Drake discovers San Francisco Bay.

1582 AD - Introduction of the Gregorian calendar.

1600 AD - Giordano Bruno burned at the stake for heretical writing that promoted the Earth and humans as ultimately accidents of a single living world-substance.

1600 AD - Hans and Zacharias Jannsen construct the first microscope.

1600 AD - William Gilbert publishes a treatise on magnetism.

1601 AD - Matteo Ricci arrives in Peking.

1604 AD - Hieronymus Fabricius writes De formata foetu, a study of human embryology based on comparison with dogs, cats, and horses.

1605 AD - Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici is elected Pope Leo XI, Fourth Florentine Archfather.

1605 AD - Francis Bacon's The Advancement of Learning initiates the age of modern inductive science.

1614 AD - John Napier, a fervent Protestant who in 1593 published a commentary of Revelation, publishes the first table of logarithms.

1616 AD - Pietro della Valle brings the Samaritan Pentateuch to the West.

1625 AD - Pietro della Valle discovers Ur.

1628 AD - William Harvey's treatise on blood circulation.

1631 AD - First newspaper published.

1632 AD - Rembrandt paints The Anatomy Lesson.

1643 AD - Toricelli demonstrates atmospheric pressure, leading to invention of the barometer.

1655 AD - Antonio Cardinal Barberini, nephew of Pope Urban VIII, was consecrated bishop, having previously been appointed Cardinal in 1628.

1656 AD - James Ussher added up the genealogies of Genesis and concluded creation of the world was 4004 BC. This idea persisted for several centuries, when in the 18th-century, French scientist Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon concluded that the Earth cooled from an originally molten body, which would have required at least 75,000 years. Later developments in the late 18th-century and early 19th-century provided new evidence that the Earth is far older than previously imagined.

1657 AD - Otto von Guericke shows that it is possible for a vacuum to exist with the demonstration using several teams of horses that could not pull apart two joined hemispheres when the air in them had been evacuated.

1658 AD - Jan Swammerdam describes red blood cells.

1667 AD - German astronomer Ole Romer discovers the velocity of light [others will later measure it].

1668 AD - Charles Maurice Letellier, son of the Grand Chancellor of France, Archbishop of Reims, is consecrated Bishop by Cardinal Barberini.

1670 AD - Jacques Benigne Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux, is consecrated by Archbishop Letellier.

1673 AD - Jacques Goyon de Matignon, Bishop of Condom, is consecrated by Bishop Bossuet.

1675 AD - The Formula Consensus Helvetica states as a matter of dogma that vowel points are inspired.

1676 AD - Baruch Spinoza published Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Following medieval commentator Abraham Ibn Ezra, Spinoza argued that the traditional view of Moses as the author of the Pentateuch was "ungrounded and even irrational."

1678 AD - Richard Simon publishes Critical History of the Old Testament, attacking the view that the authority of Biblical books rested on the fact of their authorship by inspired individuals. He proposed that scribal schools existed in ancient Israel and Biblical books passed through many hands before attaining their final form.

1683 AD - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek is the first to publish drawings of single-celled creatures, which he observed through a microscope.

1687 AD - Sir Isaac Newton's Principia establishes laws of motion and gravity.

1689 AD - Publication of Richard Simon's Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament, an historical criticism of the New Testament.

1689 AD - John Locke publishes Essay Concerning Human Understanding suggested that revelation should be considered continuous with nature rather than opposed to it and that reason the criterion for accepting all truths and beliefs.

1691 AD - Archbishop Codde of Utrecht is accused falsely of the Jansenist heresy. He is cleared by the Pope's commission, but the effects of this laid the foundation for conflict that persists to this day.

1704 AD - Sir Isaac Newton publishes his theory of color and light in Opticks.

1705 AD - Edmund Halley predicts that the comet of 1682 will return in 1758.

1733 AD - Schultens demonstrated that Hebrew was not a unique sacred language, but one Semitic language among others.

1738 AD - Excavation of Herculaneum begins in Italy.

1739 AD - Bishop Dominique-Marie Varlet, Roman Catholic Titular Bishop of Ascalon, consecrated by Bishop de Matignon, consecrates Peter John Meindaerts to the vacant See of Utrecht. The name of Old Roman Catholic Church of Holland was used. Prior to this point, the Old Roman Catholic and Roman Communion successions were held in common.

1751 AD - First volume of Diderot's Encyclopedia  published.

1752 AD - Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning rod.

1753 AD - John Astruc suggested that Moses had used sources in composition of the Pentateuch.

1753 AD - Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeus publishes his system of plant classification.

1762 AD - Jean Jacques Rousseau's views on human nature (the "noble savage") contradict Church teaching on original sin.

1763 AD - Archbishop Meindaerts and the Second Utrecht Council issues statements in favor of orthodoxy of Faith and of respect for the Holy See.

1774 - 1778 AD - Gotthold Ephraim Lessing publishes the Wolfenbttel Fragments of Hermann Samuel Reimarus. The heretical work was strongly influenced by the English Deists and claimed that the Disciples stole Jesus' body from the tomb and made up the doctrines of the Resurrection and parousia.

1775 AD - J. C. Dderlein was the first to propose that chapters 40-55 of Isaiah were written during the Babylonian exile.

1776 AD - Edward Gibbon publishes the first volume of Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He blamed the fall of Rome partly on the rise of Christianity.

1782 AD - Johannes Benjamin Koppe challenged Saint Augustine's doctrine that Matthew's was the first Gospel to be written.

1783 AD - First manned flight in hot air balloon.

1785 AD - First balloon flight across the English Channel.

1788 AD - Uniformitarianism, the geological concept that "the present is the key to the past," is developed by Scottish geologist James Hutton.

1789 AD - Beginning of the French Revolution and period of martyrdom resulting from revolutionary anti-Catholic persecution.

1790 AD - Re-discovery of Pompeii.

1791 AD - Thomas Paine publishes heretical The Rights of Man in defense of the French Revolution.

1795 AD - Thomas Paine's heretical The Age of Reason dismisses the Holy Bible as a web of barbarous ideas of no moral value, even the New Testament being nothing but "absurdities, contradictions, and falsehoods." This contributed to the rise of Deism, an outgrowth of the Enlightenment, which rejects all aspects of Christian belief that seem contrary to reason as well as parts of the Old Testament that seem immoral or incredible according to modern standards. This included a rejection of fulfilled prophecy and miracles. Famous Deists of the day included Jean Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire in France, Hermann Reimarus in Germany, and Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and Thomas Paine in America.

1795 AD - Scottish geologist James Hutton's Theory of the Earth  showed that the then-prevailing theory that all sedimentary rock had been laid down at the time of the biblical flood was untenable.

1796 AD - English physician Edward Jenner develops vaccination against smallpox.

1799 AD - A 33,000 year-old frozen mammoth is discovered at the Lena River in Russia.

1799 AD - The Rosetta Stone is discovered accidentally by a group of soldiers during Napolen's expedition to Egypt. The stone was deciphered in 1822 and records a decree of Ptolemy V Epiphanes issued in 196 BC. The stone became the key to unlocking ancient Egyptian texts.

1800 AD - Alessandro Volta invents the first electric battery. He demonstrates it to Emperor Napolen at the University of Pavia.

1801 AD - The Kingdom of Etruria is established from the former Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the Emperor Napolen when the Habsburg Grand Duke was deposed.

1802 AD - Geog Friedrich Grotefend recognized that many Persian inscriptions were trilingual and that the characters were alphabetic rather than syllabic..

1804 AD - First steam locomotive.

1805 AD - The former Grand Duke of Tuscany receives the Electorate of Wrzburg, which had been established when the Prince-Bishopric of Wrzburg had been secularized by Napolen. The Electorate was renamed a Grand Duchy after the disestablishment of the Holy Roman Empire the following year.

1806 AD - The Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor abdicates and illegally disestablished the Holy Roman Empire under threat from Napolen.

1814 AD - A new Grand Duchy of Tuscany was established by the House of Habsburg as a satellite of their Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1818 AD - Mary Shelley published Frankenstein.

1819 AD - The Savannah becomes the first steamship to cross the Atlantic.

1822 AD - J. F. Champollion publishes his successful deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics.

1826 AD - Ohm's law establishes the relationship of electrical voltage, current, and resistance.

1830 AD - Ludwig Feuerbach published the anti-Christian work, Thoughts Concerning Death and Immortality, which portrayed Christianity as being both inhumane and dehumanizing and claimed that God is merely the product of the human faculty for mythmaking.

1831 AD - The McCormick Reaper.

1833 AD - Victor Hugo published the anti-clerical work, The Hunchback of Notre Dame.

1834 AD - The Danish archaeologist Christian Jurgenson Thomsen reintroduced the term "Stone Age," which was first coined by the Roman poet Titus Lucretius Carus ca. 60 BC.

1837 AD - Daguereotype photography.

1837 AD - First railway telegraph (England).

1843 AD - Discovery of the sunspot cycle

1843 AD - Paul Emile Botta discovers the palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad, which had walls 80 feet thick.

1844 AD - Samuel F. B. Morse sends message What hath God wrought? from Baltimore to Washington, D. C.

1844 AD - Constantine von Tischendorf discovers a manuscript of the entire Bible dating to the fourth century (Codex Sinaiticus) at the monastery of Saint Catherine at the foot of Mount Sinai.

1845 AD - Austen Layard excavates Nimrud and Nineveh.

1846 AD - Discovery of the planet Neptune.

1846 AD - First use of ether as anesthetic.

1848 AD - Engels and Marx publish the Communist Manifesto.

1850 AD - Discovery of the great apes in the second half of the 19th-century.

1851 AD - Singer sewing machine.

1853 AD - Invention of the internal combustion engine by Eugenio Barsanti (a priest) and Felice Matteucci in Florence.

1856 AD - First Neanderthal skeleton discovered in Germany.

1857 AD - First elevator.

1858 AD - First transatlantic telegraph cable.

1860 AD - First internal combustion engine patented.

1860 AD - Papal states seized during Italian Risorgimento

1860 AD - The Habsburg Austro-Hungarian Grand Duchy of Tuscany annexed by the Kingdom of Sardegna-Piemonte, which eventually unified the Italian states into a new Kingdom of Italy.

1863 AD - Flicien de Saulcy conducts the earliest Palestinian excavation.

1863 AD - First underground subway (London).

1864 AD - Pius IX issues the Syllabus of Errors.

1866 AD - Gregor Mendel publishes his genetic research Experiments With Plant Hybrids

1867 AD - Publication of Das Kapital

1868 AD - A skeleton of Cro-Magnon man is discovered in Southern France.

1869 AD - Opening of the Suez Canal.

1870 AD - The "Old Catholic" movement (as distinct from Old Roman Catholicism) started in opposition to Papal Infallibility and the First Vatican Council. This movement would eventually overwhelm Utrecht.

1870 AD - Invention of the telephone by Antonio Meucci.

1873 AD - Heinrich Schliemann excavates Troy.

1875 AD - Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, publishes Science and Health.

1876 AD - Patenting of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell.

1877 AD - Invention of the phonograph.

1879 AD - Invention of the light bulb.

1883 AD - Friedrich Nietzsche published the anti-Christian Thus Spake Zarathustra.

1885 AD - Louis Pasteur develops vaccine for rabies

1887 AD - Discovery of the Amarna Letters.

1888 AD - Eastman's Kodak box camera.

1889 AD - Declaration of Utrecht issued by the Old Catholic movement in opposition to Papal Infallibility, and the "Utrecht Union" solidified as a movement again Rome. This was a grave matter of concern for Old Roman Catholics, whose traditions continued the ancient traditions of the See of Utrecht regarding the primacy of the Pope.

1891 AD - Eugene Dubois discovers the first remains of Homo erectus on Java in Indonesia.

1893 AD - Pope Leo XIII issues encyclical Providentissimus Deus, defending the traditional belief of the Church in the Bible against attacks from 19th century liberalism.

1895 AD - First motion pictures.

1897 - 1907 AD - Discovery of the Oxyrhynchus papyri, some of which date to the second century AD.

1899 AD - Thomas Alva Edison issues anti-Christian, anti-religious statement: "So far as religion of the day is concerned, it is all fake.Religion is all bunk.

1899 AD - Sigmund Freud issues anti-religious statement: "When a man is freed from religion, he has a better chance to live a normal and wholesome life."

1900 AD - Max Planck's contributions to quantum physics.

1900 AD - Freud publishes Interpretation of Dreams.

1901 AD - 39,000 year-old frozen mammoth discovered in Russia

1901 AD - Discovery of the Code of Hammurabi.

1901 AD - Walter Reed proves that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes.

1901 AD - Marconi transmits radio signals from England to Newfoundland.

1901 AD - Gilette begins manufacturing safety razors.

1901 AD - W. Wrede publishes book showing that the psychologizing life of Jesus produced by the liberals was historical guesswork and unscientific.

1903 AD - Flight at Kittyhawk.

1907 AD - Condemnation of modernism by Pius X in Pascendi Domini gregis.

1908 AD - Arnold Harris Mathew, a Roman Catholic, was consecrated to the episcopate by Archbishop Geraldus Gul, Archbishop of Utrecht and served as Archbishop for the Old Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain and Ireland.

1908 AD - First newsreel.

1908 AD - First Model-T Ford.

1901 AD - Stele inscribed with the Code of Hammurabi is discovered at Susa in Iran.

1905 AD - First use of novocaine.

1910 AD - Due to the influence on Utrecht of the "Old Catholics", Archbishop Mathew separated from the Utrecht Union to preserve the orthodoxy of the Catholic Faith within Old Roman Catholicism.

1911 AD - First film studio established in Hollywood.

1912 AD - Continental drift hypothesis.

1912 AD - Titanic sinks.

1913 AD - Bertrand Russell and A. E. Whitehead publish Principia Mathematica

1914 AD - Archbishop Rudolph Prince de Landas-Berghes, having been consecrated by Archbishop Mathew the year before, came to the United States to lead the Old Roman Catholic Church Diocese in the United States.

1914 AD - Panama canal completed.

1915 AD Einstein develops theory of relativity.

1916 AD - D. W. Griffith's Intolerance.

1922 AD - Leonard Woolley begins excavation of Ur.

1925 AD - Scopes "Monkey Trial."

1926 - 1932 AD - William Foxwell Albright's excavations at Tell Beit Mirsim, fundamental in establishing the chronology of ancient Palestine based on ceramic typology.

1927 AD - George Edward Lemaitre (priest) first proposed the theory that the Universe originated as a relatively small volume of matter that exploded, which would later be called the Big Bang Theory.

1929 AD - Alexander Fleming observes the effects of penicillin on bacteria.

1947 AD - First Dead Sea Scrolls discovered

1962 AD - Discovery of the first inscription to mention Pontius Pilate.

1963 AD - Bishop Salomo Barbosa Ferraz received into the Roman Communion by Pope John XXIII (without sub-conditional consecration) while still married and appointed Titular Bishop of Eleutherna and Auxiliary Bishop of Rio de Janiero.

1965 AD - Promulgation of Dei Verbum.

1968 AD - Discovery of the first evidence of crucifixion in the 1st century at Givat ha-Mivtar, northeast of Jerusalem.

1976 AD - Pope Paul VI recognizes the Catholic status of the See of Utrecht.

1978 AD - The Diocese of the Southwest is formed as part of the conservative Anglican movement.

1992 AD - Discovery of the ossuary of the High Priest Joseph Caiaphas in Gehenna.

2001 AD - 11 September: Terrorist attacks against the United States in New York, Washington, DC, and Pennsylvania.

2005 AD - Joseph Aloisius Cardinal Ratzinger is elected Pope Benedict XVI. The Florentine Archfather later becomes temporal successor in Italy of all Popes from Urban II to Benedict XVI.

2006 AD - Following a schism, the Diocese of the Southwest enters into the fullness of the Catholic Faith through Old Roman Catholicism.

2008 AD - Diocese of the Southwest was elevated to Metropolitan Archdiocese.

2009 AD - The Metropolitan See of the Southwest is granted autonomy.

2011 AD - The Archdiocese of the Southwest, having previously been consecrated to Saint Stephen, Deacon and Protomartyr, becomes the See of Saint Stephen and Patriarchal See of the Anglican Patriarchate (Anglican Rite Roman Catholic Church) and the New Roman Communion. By right of Rome and Florence, the Bishop of St. Stephen is Bishop-Coadjutor of Rome. Its territory is identical to that of the historic Diocese of Rome. Rutherford Cardinal Johnson is elected Archfather Rutherford I, Fifth Florentine Archfather, Coadjutor and Prince of Rome.

 

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