Temporal Succession of the Patriarchate of St. Stephen


The Patriarchate of St. Stephen is the temporal successor, as ecclesiastical claimant in the Holy Roman Empire, to Florence, Etruria, Würzburg, Trier, and Mainz. The Patronage of Saint Stephen derives from the commonality of Stephen the Deacon and Protomartyr to the early churches associated with the temporal patrimony of the Patriarchate, viz., the Basilica of Arles (line of the Margraves of Tuscany and Kings of Italy and of the Electorate of Trier as Imperial Arch-Chancellor of Gaul), the Abbey of St. Stephen in Würzburg, and the Church of St. Stephen (established by the Archbishop of Mainz as Arch-Chancellor of Germany).

In the first creation of the title of Imperial Vice-King of Italy, during the first period of Carolingian rule of Italy, Bosone I d'Arles, King of Lower Burgundy and Provence was given the title by Charles the Bald, Holy Roman Emperor, King of West Francia, and King of Italy. (From the earliest times, though the Italian Crown was part of the Imperial Patrimony, it was common for the Emperor to use principally the Germanic/Frankish title, with Italian rule at times left to a crowned Vice-King.) Willa of Provence, daughter of Bosone, married Hugh d'Arles, King of Italy. His son, Ludovico, became King of Provence, King of Italy, and Holy Roman Emperor.

Another example comes during the time of Arnulf, Ludovico's predecessor as King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. Arnulf crowned his illegitimate, yet recognised son, Ratold, as Vice-King of Italy. After the reunion of the Italian crown with the Holy Roman Emperor, the style of Vice-King fell out of use until its second creation for Matilda, Margravine of Tuscany.



King Bosone of Lower Burgundy and Provence, Imperial Vice-King of Italy,
humbles himself before Saint Stephen the Deacon and Protomartyr,
celestial Patron of the Patriarchate of St. Stephen.
From a fresco in the Abbey of Charlieu in Burgundy.


Hugh d'Arles, King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Bosone d'Arles, Margrave of Tuscany * Brother of Hugh, King of Italy.

Umberto d'Arles, Margrave of Tuscany * Son of Hugh, King of Italy

Hugh d'Arles, Margrave of Tuscany

Boniface III di Canossa, Margrave of Tuscany * Grandson of Hugh, King of Italy

Federico di Canossa, Margrave of Tuscany

Matilda di Canossa, Margravine of Tuscany, Vice-Queen of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire
* Daughter of Boniface III of Tuscany and Beatrice of Lorraine and Bar. Titles and lands were gifted to the church
upon her death without issue, thus initiating the ecclesiastical temporal claims associated with Tuscany.

Paschal II, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Gelasius II, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Callixstus II, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire
* Cousin of the present Patriarch of St. Stephen

Honorius II, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Innocent II, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Celestine II, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Lucius II, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Eugene III, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Anastasius IV, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Adrian IV, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Alexander III, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Lucius III, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Urban III, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Gregory VIII, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Clement III, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Celestine III, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Innocent III, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire
* Cousin of the present Patriarch of St. Stephen

Honorius III, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Gregory IX, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire
* Cousin of the present Patriarch of St. Stephen

Celestine IV, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Innocent IV, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire

Alexander IV, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire
* Cousin of the present Patriarch of St. Stephen

Urban IV, Pope, Bishop of Rome, Sovereign of the Papal States, Vice-King%