historic Anglican Church was founded when Pope St. Gregory the Great
sent Saint Augustine of Canterbury to England. Prior to the
Protestant Reformation, the Anglican Church (the Catholic Church in
England, as distinct from later Protestant establishment) provided
numerous Cardinals and even a Pope. Some of these Cardinals served in
England, some of whom served elsewhere in the world. Some of them
also had connections to what would become Old Roman Catholicism. As a
modern day continuation of the pre-Reformation Roman Catholic Church
in England, this period is of particular historical relevance to the
Old Holy Roman Church of the English Rite. After the start of the
Protestant Regormation, it took centuries for Anglican tradition and
Old Roman Catholicism to converge within this Patriarchate. Today the
Old Holy Roman Church of the English Rite preserves the venerable
combination of Anglican heritage and Roman Catholicism as it spreads
the message of Christ's Holy Gospel around the world.
Cardinal Pullen - died 1146
Bernard wrote to Cardinal Pullen in 1145 asking him to counsel and
console the newly-elected Pope Eugenius III, who first granted
autonomy to the See of Utrecht.
Cardinal Breakspeare (Pope Adrian IV) - c. 1100 - 1159
Bishop of Albano. He was the only Englishman thus far to occupy the
Chair of St. Peter. He went to France and became a Canon Regular of
the cloister of St. Rufus monastery. He later served as a papal
legate to Scandinavia and helped to form Cathedral schools in the
bishopric cities there. He was elected Pope in 1154.
Cardinal Langton - c. 1150 - 1228
Priest of San Crisogono. Archbishop of Canterbury from 1207-1228. He
played a central role in the dispute between King John and Pope
Innocent III, the crisis of which led to the Magna Charta. He is also
credited with the division of the Bible into chapters in the form
still used today.
Cardinal Curzon - c.1160/11701219
Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio. He served as Chancellor of the
University of Paris and became a Cardinal in 1212. He took an active
part in the campaign against heresy in France and accompanied the
Fifth Crusade into Egypt as the Legate of Pope Honorius III.
Cardinal Somercotes - died 1241
of the Church of San Eustachio.
Cardinal of Toledo - died 1275
Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina. Dean of the Sacred College of
Cardinal in 1273. Also a Cistercian Abbot.
Cardinal Kilwardby - c.1215 - 1279
of Canterbury. Member of the Dominican Order. Regent of Oxford
University. Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina in 1278.
Cardinal of Evesham - died 1287
Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina. Having earlier served as Archdeacon
of Worcester, he was personal physician to Pope Martin IV.
Cardinal of Macclesfield - died 1303-4
Priest of Santa Sabina by Pope Benedict XI. It is unclear whether
the information of his appointment reached him before his death or not.
Cardinal of Winterburn - 13th century - 1305
Cardinal by Benedict XI, he wrote several works on philosophy and theology.
Cardinal of Lorz - died 1310
Dominican, he was a Master of Theology at Oxford University. Created
Cardinal Priest of Santa Sabina in 1305.
Cardinal de Langham - 1310 1376
of Canterbury, having previously served as Bishop of Ely and
Treasurer of England. Cardinal Priest of San Sisto Vecchio. His
library and his estate were left to Westminster Abbey.
Cardinal Easton - 14th century - 1397
York and Cardinal Priest of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. He was a
staunch supporter of ecclesiastical power and composed the Office of
the Visitation of Our Lady.
Cardinal Beaufort - c. 1374 1447
of Winchester. He was made a Cardinal in 1426 and served as a papal
legate to Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia.
Cardinal Kemp - c. 1380 1454
of Canterbury. Lord Chancellor of England. Cardinal Bishop of Santa Rufina.
Cardinal Bourchier - c. 1404 1486
Cardinal in 1473. He served as Lord Chancellor of England during the
start of the War of the Roses. He served as Bishop of Worcester,
Bishop of Ely, and Archbishop of Canterbury, as well as Chancellor of
Cardinal Morton - c. 1420 - 1500
of Canterbury. Cardinal Priest of Santa Anastasia. Lord Chancellor
of England under Henry VI.
Cardinal Bainbridge - 1462/64 1514
of York. Cardinal Priest of Santa Prassede.
Cardinal Wolsey - c. 1473 1530
of York. Created Cardinal Priest of Santa Cecilia by Pope Leo X, who
confirmed the autonomy of the See of Utrecht, which thereafter was
known as the Leonine Privilege. Perhaps most famous as Lord
Chancellor of England under Henry VIII and for building Hampton Court
Palace. Though he (unsuccessfully) appealed to the Pope for the
annulment of Henry VIII's marriage to Catharine of Aragon, he
remained loyal to the Church and ultimately lost the favor of the King.
John Cardinal Fischer - 1459/1469 1535
Priest of San Vitale. Bishop of Rochester. He was executed by order
of Henry VIII for refusing to accept the King of England as the
Supreme Head of the Church of England and for upholding the doctrine
of papal primacy.
Cardinal Pole - 1500 1558
of Canterbury, he was the last Catholic to hold this office. Though
not yet ordained at the
he was created a Cardinal by Pope Paul III.
addition, the two senior-most members of the College of Minor Canons
of the Cathedral of Saint Paul in London, which is part of the post-Reformation
Church of England, are titled Cardinal. One is the Senior Cardinal
and the other is the Junior Cardinal. For more information on this
historic college of minor canons that predates the Norman Conquest of
England, continue reading here.
These offices continue to this day.